Checking/Cleaning Disk Space on Linux

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Check the disk space (may need to install ncdu first):

sudo ncdu /

Clean up unused stuff:

sudo apt-get clean
sudo apt-get autoclean
sudo apt-get autoremove

clean: clean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. It removes everything but the lock file from /var/cache/apt/archives/ and /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/. When APT is used as a dselect(1) method, clean is run automatically. Those who do not use dselect will likely want to run apt-get clean from time to time to free up disk space.

autoclean: Like clean, autoclean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. The difference is that it only removes package files that can no longer be downloaded, and are largely useless. This allows a cache to be maintained over a long period without it growing out of control. The configuration option APT::Clean-Installed will prevent installed packages from being erased if it is set to off.

autoremove: is used to remove packages that were automatically installed to satisfy dependencies for some package and that are no more needed.

See a related question on askubuntu:

Categories: Linux

NGINX Subdomains

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In the example below we serve index.html from /var/www/html/your_site directory when accessing “”; and we send all requests to local application server running locally on port 4000 when accessing

File: /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default

server {
        listen 80;
        listen [::]:80;


        location / {
                root /var/www/html/your_site;
                try_files $uri /index.html;

server {
  listen 80;
  listen [::]:80;


  location / {
     proxy_redirect off;
Categories: Linux

Deploying React to Linux Server with Git Push

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Selected VPS: Linode, 1GB Ram, 20 GB SSD, 1 TB transfer
OS: Ubuntu 17.04
Web Server: Ngnix
If you’d like to try Linode, I would greatly appreciate using this referral link – Linode: SSD Cloud Hosting & Linux Servers

Start with regular updates

apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

Set up fail2ban and Firewall

I’m installing fail2ban 0.10 since it supports ipv6. At the time of this post, it is not available as a regular package.

tar -xvzf 0.10.0.tar.gz
python3 install

#To enable fail2ban as an automatic service, copy the script for your distro from the files directory to /etc/init.d.

cp files/debian-initd /etc/init.d/fail2ban
update-rc.d fail2ban defaults
service fail2ban start

#Add local jail
awk '{ printf "# "; print; }' /etc/fail2ban/jail.conf | sudo tee /etc/fail2ban/jail.local
vim /etc/fail2ban/jail.local

uncomment sshd section and add
enabled = true

sudo apt-get install sendmail iptables-persistent
sudo service fail2ban start

Firewall ( allow established connections, traffic generated by the server itself, traffic destined for our SSH and web server ports. We will drop all other traffic):

sudo service fail2ban stop
sudo iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
sudo iptables -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
sudo iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
sudo iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport --dports 80,443 -j ACCEPT
sudo iptables -A INPUT -j DROP

# easy way to rate-limit ssh with ufw:
# technically, we could do all of the iptables stuff with ufw
ufw enable
ufw limit ssh

If using IPv6:

ip6tables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
ip6tables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT
ip6tables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT # (replace with your undisclosed port)
ip6tables -A INPUT -p icmpv6 -j ACCEPT
ip6tables -A INPUT -j REJECT
ip6tables -A FORWARD -j REJECT

View iptables rules:

sudo iptables -S

Save iptables rules:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure iptables-persistent
sudo service fail2ban start


vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config

#Add or uncomment (if using Ubuntu < 17.04)
protocol 2

#Add allowed ciphers
Ciphers aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr
KexAlgorithms ecdh-sha2-nistp256,ecdh-sha2-nistp384,ecdh-sha2-nistp521,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256
MACs hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha2-512

Restart and test ssh config:

service sshd restart
#returns nothing if everything configured properly
sshd -t


sudo apt-get install software-properties-common
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:nginx/stable
sudo apt-get install nginx
service nginx status

Update /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default

root /var/www/html/your_site;

location / {
# Some comments...
try_files $uri /index.html;   # ADD THIS

sudo service nginx restart

Installing React Dependencies

# install yarn
curl -sS | sudo apt-key add -
echo "deb stable main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/yarn.list
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install yarn
#install node (apt-get repo has an older version of Node)
curl -sL | sudo -E bash -
sudo apt-get install -y nodejs
sudo apt-get install -y build-essential

GIT Push Deploy

Let’s set up git on the server

apt-get install git-core
mkdir repos && cd repos
mkdir your_site.git
cd your_site.git
git init --bare

Set up a post-push hook
cd /repos/your_app.git/hooks
touch post-receive

#!/bin/bash -l


yarn install
yarn build
rm -rf $PUBLIC_WWW/your_app_bup
mv $PUBLIC_WWW/your_app $PUBLIC_WWW/your_app_bup
cp -a build/. $PUBLIC_WWW/your_app

Run on post-receiv:

chmod +x post-receive

On your local machine:

git remote add linode [email protected]_server_address:repos/your_app.git
git push linode master
Categories: git, Linux, React